Medieval history of Sri Lanka

The Medieval history of Sri Lanka is dated from the end the of Anuradhapura Kingdom, in 1017, to the start of BritishColonial occupation in 1815.Contents [hide]1Kingdom of Ruhun2Kingdom of Polonnaruwa3Jaffna kingdom4Kingdom of Dambadeniya4.1From Yapahuwa4.2From Kurunegala5Kingdom of Gampol5.1From Dedigama5.2From Raigama6Kingdom of Kotte6.1From Kelaniya7Kingdom of Sitawaka8Kingdom of Kandy9See also10References11External links // [edit]Kingdom of Ruhuna Main article: Kingdom of Ruhuna[edit]Kingdom of Polonnaruwa Main article: Kingdom of Polonnaruwa The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was the second major Sinhalese kingdom of Sri Lanka. It lasted from 1055 under Vijayabahu I to 1212 under the rule of Lilavati. The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa came after the Anuradhapura Kingdom was invaded by Chola forces under Rajaraja I and after the Kingdom of Ruhuna, where the Sinhalese Kings ruled during Chola occupation.Vijayabahu I (1055-1110), recaptured the whole Island, and established Polonnaruwa as the new capital. King Vijayabahu married from the Kalinga (Orissa) Royal Family a second queen, and had a son Vikramabâhu I and a daughter Ratnavali. His sister, Mitta, married a Pandya Prince who had three sons, the eldest being Manabharana. He married Ratnavali. Their son was Parākramabāhu I (1153-1186) Grandson of Vijayabahu I, Prince of Sinhala-Pandyan-Kalinga descent, son of Manabharana and Vijayabahu’s sister, Mitta. He was a very powerful king, noted for his engineering,[1] naval power, art, culture, many Sinhala inscriptions, and even a Tamil edict in Uruthota (Kayts). The Chulavamsa was written by Dharmakirthi, updating the Mahavamsa to include Parakramabahu. It was a great age since the epic Anradhapura period.[edit]Jaffna kingdom Main articles: Jaffna kingdom and Aryacakravarti dynasty The Jaffna kingdom, also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti came into existence after the invasion of Magha, who is said to have been from Kalinga, in South India. It eventually became a tribute paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1250, but later become independent with the fragmentation of the Pandyan control. For a brief period, in the early to middle fourteenth century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was eventually overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450. It was freed of Kotte control in 1467; its subsequent rulers directed their energies towards consolidating its economic potential by maximising revenue from pearls and elephant exports and land revenue. It was less feudal than most of other regional kingdoms in the island of Sri Lanka of the same period. During this period, important local Tamil literature was produced and Hindu temples were built including an academy for language advancement. The arrival of the Portuguese colonial power to the island of Sri Lanka in 1505, and its strategic location in the Palk Strait connecting all interior Sinhalese kingdoms to South India, created political problems. Many of its kings confronted and ultimately made peace with the Portuguese colonials. In 1617, Cankili II, an usurper to the throne, confronted the Portuguese but was defeated, thus bringing the kingdom’s independent existence to an end in 1619.[edit]Kingdom of Dambadeniya This section requires expansion. Main article: Kingdom of DambadeniyaDambadeniya is an ancient capital of Sri Lanka. Four kings ruled from here, Vijayabâhu III (1220-1236), Parâkkamabâhu II (1236-1270), Vijayabâhu IV (1270-1272), Bhuvanaikabâhu I(1272-1283). The first king to choose Dambadeniya as his capital was Vijayabâhu III. He was able to bring about the unity among the sangha that had fled in various directions due to the hostile activities of the invader Kalinga magha & succeeded in holding a Buddhist convention in 1226 to bring about peace among the Buddhist clergy. king Parâkkamabâhu II inherited the throne from king Vijayabâhu. He is considered a genius who was a great poet & prolific writer. Among the books he wrote are Kausilumina, which is considered a great piece of literature. Unifying the three kingdoms that existed within Sri Lanka at that point of time is regarded as greatest achievement. King Bosath Vijayabâhu, as the eldest son of king Parâkkamabâhu II, was crowned in 1270. He was well known for his modest behaviour & for his religious activities. He was killed in the second year of his reign by a minister called Miththa. After the demise of his elder brother Vijayabâhu, king Bhuvanaikabâhu I, as the next in line to the throne, shifted the capital to Yapahuwa for reasons of security. He followed his father's footsteps as a writer & continued with the religious activities started by his brother Vijayabâhu.[edit]From Yapahuwa Main article: Kingdom of Yapahuwa[edit]From Kurunegala Main article: Kingdom of Kurunegala[edit]Kingdom of Gampola Main article: Kingdom of Gampola[edit]From Dedigama Main article: Kingdom of Dedigama[edit]From Raigama Main article: Kingdom of Raigama[edit]Kingdom of Kotte Main article: Kingdom of Kotte[edit]From Kelaniya Main article: Kingdom of Kelaniya[edit]Kingdom of Sitawaka Main article: Kingdom of Sitawaka[edit]Kingdom of Kandy Main article: Kingdom of Kandy[edit]See also